Saturday, December 24, 2011

Yup, that's it.

Last year I posted photos logging how Achilles mysteriously started to pick at her skin causing her to have visible wounds on her back. I was so worried I made an oatmeal paste to get her through until next morning, then she would be off to the vet.

The oatmeal treatment practically healed all of her wounds, the vet told me. But the oatmeal residue didn't let the feathers dry very easily. So the vet gave us some Dermaide and in a couple days Achilles's wounds had healed. Brilliant!

As to what caused her to start picking at her skin I did not know for sure, but I do now. She gets dry skin from the weather and it looks like it will be a seasonal thing. So I stocked up on more Dermaide from their website a couple weeks ago. Achilles started picking at her skin again when the weather started getting cold, thankfully the Dermaide was applied before her skin became overrun with wounds.

Applying the Dermaide would have been a problem if I didn't do some training in advance. When I first got Achilles she didn't like being pet in many places other than the head. So  I decided it might be a good idea to have her learn to like being petted in other places like her back, wings, and bum (near the preen gland, which can get infected). So with that training in place applying her medication is actually a cuddle session. How cool is training when it's done right?

I'm glad that has been all sorted out.Yup, cold weather, that's what it was.

Happy Solstice!

Copyright 2013 Caitlin Bird
The Sequential Psittacine Blog

Monday, October 10, 2011

A sweet fluffy cockatiel, or a deadly bird of prey?

We had a lazy Sunday this week. I hope you enjoy the video as much as Achilles is enjoying the rain.


Copyright 2013 Caitlin Bird

Saturday, October 8, 2011

Biting Behaviors: Predicting, Preventing and Replacing

"I have an almost four months old quaker parrot. He's very friendly and is not afraid of people. He gladly steps up to come out of the cage. He'll go up to you but when he's on your shoulder or hand he'll nip you HARD. I can't say he's being aggressive. He doesn't seem angry or stressed, he just pinch your skin so hard, its almost impossible to let him stay on you. He's fully flighted and he will follow me everywhere I go. What should I do to make him stop the nipping." - user Struckbygold

Tuesday, July 19, 2011

Who is Training Who?

This morning during our regular training routine I noticed some regression in Achilles's harness training. Suddenly she was wearing it for a shorter and shorter time span, but demanding more treats anyway! Why? Something was wrong in my training and I had to figure it out quickly before this became an obtrusive habit.

Monday, June 6, 2011

Top 10 Ways to Build Relationships with Parrots

Have a Feisty Freida on your hands? Or a Bossy Bubba? Put yourself close to their hearts by taking these ten steps to a successful relationship with your parrot.


Wednesday, June 1, 2011

Behavior, UH! What's it good for?

What is behavior and why does is exist? I suppose behavior is an action preformed by a "critter" for a purpose, and that purpose is the reason for it's existence via years of evolutionary development and refinement. That's just my quick conjecture so lets take a peek at what the prestigious Wikipedia has to say about the function of behavior.

"All behaviors serve a purpose."

Wow, is that it? So how do we know what purpose a behavior serves? How do I know why my bird opens her wings up and flaps them? It all depends on what the is trying to accomplish, there is no "one answer fits all". Many reasons exist for any single particular behavior existing because all animals have a purpose for performing that behavior depending on the pre-existing conditions that we put them in. For example, one answer for "why" my bird opens her wings up relies on me wiggling my hand back and forth to throw her off balance, and when she does open those wings and flaps it encourages me further to wiggle my hand whenever I want to see that behavior. (WARNING: This is not a good first option, or long-term strategy. This action is using Negative Reinforcement and should be one of the very last options to consider.)

Another scenario is for intrinsic needs. If I notice that every morning when I take my cockatiel, Achilles, out of her sleep cage and place her onto her playstand, she begins to flap quite vigorously for several seconds without any other antecedent other than stepping up onto her playstand I may first assume that the playstand is causing her to flap. But given that she does not do any other time than in the morning I can then assume that there is an internal, or intrinsic need that "makes her feel good" when she flaps in the morning.

The same behavior, but different reasons for it due to different circumstances. Easy right?

So behavior has varying purposes. But in order for your bird to get what he wants (and people too for that matter) communication often needs to take place. Many actions and movements that a bird makes is communication, often enough directed right at you, the owner. It is our responsibility as good parrot owners to make sense of what our companion animals are trying to say. What does that eye pinning, fluffed cheek feathers, pacing, lunging, head bobbing, hopping, open wings, or open beak mean? We'll discover that in time because one behavior can serve many purposes.


Copyright 2013 Caitlin Bird
The Sequential Psittacine Blog

Sunday, May 29, 2011

A Breathtaking Breakthrough

Achilles and I just completed another day of glorious training, everything went well and without a hitch. And the breakthrough that really made it for us was changing how I acted when training her. Let me explain.

Achilles and I have been working quite diligently on training for her to wear a harness with the least amount of stress involved. The original idea was to go at her own pace, and remove the harness whenever she showed signs of struggling. Well that idea worked for getting her to wear the harness, but the quality of her effort wasn't something to crow about. Every time she wore the harness she would squat down in one spot and not move, or at least move very little. She would only wear the harness for the minimum amount of time required  before she would demand for the harness to come off of her (giving minimum effort is a sign that Negative Reinforcement is being used somewhere).

You see, the harness, even when I was pairing good treats with it, was still acting as a Negative Reinforcer. She still could not wait to get the harness off and when she told me to take it off I did so because that is what good trainers do. But by taking the harness off I was reinforcing the idea that taking it off is something good! I don't want that, instead I want her to think that having the harness on is good! So how was I going to fix this messy, self-defeating situation? Here is what I figured out.

I made three new training rules:


  1. I will do my best to prevent you feeling uncomfortable wearing the harness. I will not push you past your threshold. 
  2. In order to prevent you feeling uncomfortable I will remove the harness before you show me you are uncomfortable and then I will reward you with a treat.


  • If I accidentally DO push you past your comfort threshold I will take the harness off. But no other reward will follow.

  • The results of these new rules? There are now almost no signs given by her that she is uncomfortable and wants the harness off. She now stands up strait, walks around, waves her foot, and sits with the harness on comfortably for a long, long time. Give a bird the ability to choose and they will flourish!

    Rule number 2 is what really cleaned up Achilles's act. My best guess in why this worked is because I trained her to expect a treat when I removed her harness, before she wanted it off. After that -if I ever pushed her past her comfort threshold- I would not give her a treat. This is called Negative Punishment which involves me taking away the seed reward in order to reduce the behavior of her wanting the harness off. BUT this only applies when I accidentally push her past her comfort threshold. So conditions apply, but these conditions are the ones that she can control herself.

    So, today I am proud because, even though it's been two days since out last training session, and I filled her cage with every goody in the world (including her training treats) she is still eager to come out and learn new behaviors with me at 7:00 at night. Which is usually her bedtime.

    Sweet dreams!

    Copyright 2011 Caitlin Bird
    The Sequential Psittacine Blog

    Saturday, May 21, 2011

    Comparing Parrot and Child Behavior

    In the following video I make a comparison of how we treat kids and how we treat parrots. We just adore giving our birds human characteristics and calling our our pets "two and four year olds" so I give the following comparison:

    "What if a small child told you he was too tired, grouchy, or sad to come and play with you? Would you not care about how he is feeling and make him come out anyway? No! His needs are more important than your petty want of “playing” with the poor child.

    This goes for the same with our birds. If you are capable of understanding what your bird is telling you then you have the obligation to listen."




    In this situation I compare the child's verbal communication to a parrot's. They both want to stay in their "room" yet use different ways to express this, and for the parrot this can include biting.

    Fortunately biting is not the first natural option a parrot chooses to say "leave me alone". Before biting ever occurs there are a lot of other things that go on, eye pinning, posturing, tail flaring, and even scampering away in the other direction are ways that birds let us know they do not want to be handled. Biting is a last resort, even if they step up after the bite (or even if the bite did not draw blood), the bird was still trying to tell you to "go away".

    The real answer to why parrots bite? Because their previous communication attempts (body language) were not received by the person.

    Want a quick fix? Put emphasis on basic communication to avoid teaching a bird to bite.

     Intellectuals solve problems, geniuses prevent them. - Albert Einstein

    Copyright 2013 Caitlin Bird


    Thursday, April 21, 2011

    Training When Young!

    Take a look at the following video clip, it will make your heart skip with joy.



    There, wasn't that just a sweet relationship those two had? It is so easy a child can do it! You don't need to resort to gurus or self-proclaimed experts that taught themselves via google. (A professor once told us that "experts" aren't anything. Being that "ex" refers to "the past" and "pert" is "a little drop of water". Put it together he said, and all experts are "Just an old used up drop of water." This idea had amused me on several occasions.)

    Maybe there should be a new rule of thumb when you consider a sketchy training strategey: "Would I trust a child to do this?" And if there is a risk of the child getting scratched, bit, kicked, shoved or hurt in any way, you should rethink that training strategey. Granted this is not as good as the rule of thumb that zoo trainers use; "If I would not do this to a lion, I shouldn't do it." but it is another good idea to consider.

    Happy training!

    Copyright 2011 Caitlin Bird
    The Sequential Psittacine Blog

    Sunday, March 20, 2011

    Training: I Took the Long Road

     I get it now, I finally get it. I have discovered the mechanics behind my own self-evolution from a liberal force-based trainer to a calm, level-headed, and conservative trainer. And this will be the only time you catch me saying that I’m very conservative, so this anomalous “Ah-ha!” is a rare moment. To fully appreciate my self-discovery I will have to dishevel some old and detailed memories from my dusty closet of bad bird training at you. For those who are well practiced in bird body language and use it like an unbreakable code of honor, you may be shocked at my actions. But this is an important part of my development, it shows that people do transform and change their minds and that means a world of hope to me.
    First imagine an awkwardly tall, quiet, homeschooler, a nice polite person but nothing more than just that. Her attitude (if you could say she had one) is shallow and empty, she easily stumbles over words and simple ideas. This was me of course, but what you would not expect from this girl was her forceful and fear-inducing parrot training strategy. You could say this girl was confused when reading all the conflicting and obscure anecdotal advice read from the pages of a popular talk bird magazine. What she read was all very confusing, very influential and very dangerous for both her and the parrots involved.

    Training ideas that she lived by were “You cannot be afraid of bites, just take it!” and “Never let a bird on your shoulder!” or my personal favorite “Never let a bird get away with anything! Show them who is flock leader!” For this quiet girl, bites were a daily occurrence and were proudly worn and shown off as battle scars. For some weird, psychological reason this made her feel strong, superior and successful because she was in control of the chaotic ill-behaved birds, she was in charge of the poor confused birds and she could make them do anything, it was fulfilling for her.


    Now imagine putting this quiet and confused young child into a place full of parrots that didn’t really belong to anyone. She was free to “train” (the word used should be “molest”) any one of the cockatiels, conures, amazons, macaws or moluccan cockatoos she pleased. There was very little supervision and she could be there 6 hours a day or more if she so pleased, she is homeschooled after all.

    Was there a quaker parrot that didn’t like head scratches? Grab it in a towel and pet it anyway, he’ll learn to like it.

    How about a cockatoo that wouldn’t step up? Easy, make it step up right now, just push harder on that bird’s belly.

    And if that cockatoo bit? No worries, she has all the solutions! If it bit the hand it stepped onto, just drop the hand to make him lose balance and he’ll let go! And if it was your other hand that got bit you could easily wriggle your finger out, firmly grab his beak and shake it. Or you could simply push that bleeding finger into the birds face to get it to let go, just throw the bird off balance! Ingenious!

    Along with her misguided faith in force based training she did not hold herself accountable for her actions. If there was an incidence where a bird bit it was because the animal was “wild” or “untame” the fault was the bird’s and it was dubbed with a label instead. Because it certainly wasn’t her fault that she got bit, or that the bird ran away from stepping up, or that the bird flew off its perch, or its feathers had to be clipped, or that it liked faces but not hands, or that it yelled “bad bird” and “No!” back into her face, or that it scampered to hide under the nearest cage to get away, or that it never fluffed up its feathers in contentment when being pet, or that trick behaviors where never on time when cued. It was obvious that all the hundreds of birds that came through were ill mannered, dominant, mean, territorial, hormonal, or where just there to fuck with your head. It was just obvious.

    And while you are cringing at every detail I dole out I have not yet touched on how changing my training changed my worldveiw too. In the beginning I was over eager to grab, experience and fondle the animals like any young excited person would be. But I was also frustrated when a bird showed no progress, or made a little progress and then promptly started having even more bad habits. I was mad, I was in charge and, in my mind, I was doing everything right to tame the bird. Instead I was swelling up with even more anger, impatience and force-based methods over time. There was no way out.


    That is until a little green budgie named E.T. came along. He was bright, spunky and full of energy and I wanted to train him to make him perfect. One of my criteria for perfection was flying, he had to recall to my hand perfectly and that “perfectness” criteria permanently changed my ways. If I wanted perfection I needed to research, so I read Carly Lu’s Flight blog, Joined Yahoo’s Free Flight Parrots list, and read Chris Biro’s writings. Everybody was talking about a woman named Dr. Susan G. Friedman and everyone was giving out her works in PDF form, so I read that too and over a couple of weeks I saw parrot training in a much more simplified light. It became easy to understand and so I practiced, and I quickly got results from training that little green bird.

    The first thing I practiced was interpreting body language, when you get good at it it's like reading your bird's mind. Dr. of psycology, Susan Friedman, lives by and uses this as a well honed skill.

    Take another look at this Caique, can you tell what his body language is telling you? To me it is obvious that the bird is uncomfortable in this situation. there is something just outside of the camera's lens that is directly causing this discomfort. I know this because the bird's head is oriented somewhere else, the pupils are dilating, the beak is slightly opened getting ready for defense,  feathers are slicked down and unfluffed, wings are slightly opened and ready for takeoff and all of his body is leaned in the direction of escape. I was taught this is very bad body language to get used to seeing, when you see these signs you know that the bird is ready to bite you and/or will flee away from training. Both are completely unacceptable if you are trying to make the experience easy, fun, and productive.

    Think of it this way, if you have ever taken a test you know how important it is to keep a level head during the test, if you are too nervous for the test it is likely that you won't do as well as the calm and collected classmate next to you. You may answer the questions more slowly, forget to finish a few quetions, or your concentration will wander. You would not exactly choose to be in this state when taking a test if you could avoid it, so why make our birds feel this way when training? We want them to be happy, even excited to be here and work with us. In order to do this we read and interpret their body language to avoid these stressful situations. This is what I did for E.T.
    E.T. progressed beautifully, three weeks into training and he was bolting to my hand at the exact second I called. Millet works wonders! We slowly, calmly and steadily took the training at his pace and as far as I can remember I could not tell you about a happier or faster learning bird. And I was happy too! Every day was an adventure and every day little E.T. would learn something new to surprise me with (well he had his down days sometimes, so I told myself he’d want to train later and he always did!).

    Fly to me from the couch? Sure.

    From the floor? Of course!

    Fly to my brother in the covered patio? Duh!

    My own frustration and anger disappeared; I became content not having to feel the need to make a bird do what I wanted it to do because it had to do it. Instead I found that E.T. did what I asked him because he wanted to do what I proposed. For the first time in a long time I felt encouraged, calm, cleverly observant and successful. The frustration and confusion was wiped away from my eyes like a wiper does for a windshield on a rainy day, I was ecstatic and wanted to show and tell everyone. And that is what I’m doing, you can’t stop me.

    Copyright 2011 Caitlin Bird
    The Sequential Psittacine Blog

    Thursday, February 17, 2011

    Animal Behavior 101: Learned Helplessness, Part 1

    Over the past couple of months I've been reviewing some fundamentals of animal behavior in Dr. Susan G. Friedman's online class Learning and Living with Parrots (know popularly as LLP). It has been a very pleasant experience chatting it up with all the helpful TA's and reading many of the responses of my fellow clever classmates. But we are here at this blog today to learn about something that the LLP class helped me to find more information on, Learned Helplessness. In the following bit of blogging I'll discuss not only what the learned helplessness phenomena is, but also to tell you how you can and need to avoid using this method. I have seen everyday parrot owners, as well as the well seasoned parrot "expert" unwittingly put their beloved pets into situations that cause the physical and mental stunting that learned helplessness helps to create.  And with that let's learn!

    The definition of learned helplessness (hereby denoted as LH) is this: When an organism has learned to not escape unpleasant circumstances, even when escape is possible. And unfortunately this definition comes with a great big asterisk as well, as it carries well known detrimental side-effects to a creature's motivation, cognition, and immune system. An animal learns LH when it is placed into situation(s) where it has no choice of escape from an aversive stimulus. In other words the key to preventing LH is to give your animal the option to tell you "No! I do not want to do that right now."

    Here is a terrific example of LH being taught to students.



    Now imagine that the peer pressure in this group disappeared, and say the rules changed to "If you get stuck on a question skip it, it doesn't matter how many you get right as this does not measure intelligence." These conditions are now giving the students a moral boost by giving them a choice in the matter! Do you think that under these new conditions they would be able to solve the last anagram? You bet!

    The same happens with our pet birds, choice empowers! Let's see a common LH example with out pet birds.

    Have you ever had a bird that didn't like to be petted, but you wanted it to like being petted anyway? Has anyone ever told you that a really easy way to have a bird learn to like petting is to wrap it in a towel (so that it doesn't bite you of course) and scratch his head until he learns to like it? This is a great example of LH because the bird has no choice or control over the situation. There is no empowerment and no trust building between the bird and the person. All that's happening is LH, and with LH comes all those lovely little side effects I mentioned earlier: lack of motivation, less cognitive functioning (has been diagnosed as depression), and immune system suppression (more likely to get sick).

    So how does learned helplessness fit into this situation with our bird, and in what part does it begin to show itself? If we look back at the situation we see that the bird does not have the simple choice if it would like to be petted or not. Well you might be thinking "But if I give him the choice of wanting to be pet then of course he won't choose to be petted! He hates it!" and that may very well seem to be the case, but as they say there is more than one way to skin a cat, or train a bird in this case. I'll tell you a preferred way of training this behavior without using LH but instead using lots of choice, in the next blog post. But for now let's focus on the side effects of LH.

    Now we have a bird that does not have the ability to choose. It is unable get out of the situation and is forced to comply with the human's demands, thus it is helpless to change or avoid the situation. If the encounter happens a few times more you will first see the bird give up more readily -perhaps he will stop trying to get away from the towel- and then later you may indeed see the bird begin to relax while you forcefully pet his head. But those pesky side-effects will crop up as well. So is making an animal do this worth it in the end? Let's go over one of these side-effects to see what we are dealing with.

    Motivation
    In an experiment on dogs in 1976 the poor pups where exposed to LH conditions and then tested to see just how well they could learn a new behavior in a similar situation. It was found that a whopping 2/3rds of the dogs in that group did not learn the new behavior. The new behavior, by the way, was to simply flee. These results have remained statistically high well into the 21st cent. through further testing of LH in many more species since the 70's. These dogs where not motivated enough to learn, plain and simple. This experiment shows that a lack of choice in an animal's life retards the animal's learning ability.

    Motivation and "Frustration"
    Now rats were taught LH and then conditioned to move through a maze to get a reward at the end of the maze. When they ran the trial again without a reward the rats showed "frustrated" or "stubborn" behavior by refusing the leave the maze's reward spot. But the rats that where not treated to LH quickly learned that no reward was there and moved out of the finished maze. Again, the rats that where treated with LH stayed "stubborn" and did not leave the spot where the reward was usually. This shows a lack of ability to learn or "move on" from the situation. Animals treated with LH are much less adaptable to new, troublesome situations.

    So we have now learned what Learned Helplessness is, we went over two examples of it, and one of the detrimental side-effects. Next time I'll wrap it up with the other two side effects, give examples, and reveal the LH-free secret to training a bird to like head scratches! Happy learning!

    Copyright 2013 Caitlin Bird
    The Sequential Psittacine Blog

    Wednesday, January 12, 2011

    Pygmy Parrots: Pint-sized Peculiarities

    Dare I say it? Pygmy parrots pack a punch of perceived peculiarities! Well I'm glad I got that out of the way, I thought I would pop from such perturbation!

    Pygmy Parrots are birds that are true to their name, they are small. When I say small I mean a bird that is 67% the size of a Pacific Parrotlet, the smallest of the pygmy species come in at an 8.4 cm while the Pacific Parrotlet is a big 12.5 cm! That's like comparing the average teen to an adult in height, the kid may be getting closer to adulthood but there are some major differences between the two. The same goes for the pygmies and parrotlets as they are petite and green, but take a closer look and you'll find so many different peculiarities it'll either get you begging to learn more about these little known gems, or  it'll make your head spin.

    Size: The size for the average pygmy parrot is 9 to 10 cm. The species clocking in at this length include the Yellow-capped, Geelvink, Meek's, Finsch's and Red-breasted Pygmy. But the smallest, and the world record holder, is the Buff-faced Pygmy Parrot at 8.4 cm.


    Four of the six Pygmy species and distribution
    Click to enlarge
    These birds inhabit wet and lowland habitats like mangroves and some dry tropical forests on and around New Guinea and it's island chains. One bird, the Red-breasted, inhabits higher in the Montane region. Many island species within a genus tend to have diverged from a very recent common ancestor. Ancestor birds tend to come from a single source like a group originating from a large mass of land, an island or continent for example. In this case you can think of Darwin's finches, which are still undergoing rapid change and variability even today. They have evolved  a variability of charicteristics like long beaks for prodding and pulling, shorter and tougher ones for cracking and so on.
    What we see happening in both our parrots and the finches is known as Allopatric Speciation, a very cool and observable phenomenon. This would explain why we have a total of 6 island species but a whopping concentration of 26 subspecies of pygmy parrots! Where else can you find that many subspecies in one place if not on island regions? Well, mountains oceans and probably some others too, you just need some kind of barrier for speciation to take place. Lets take a break from all the scientific terminology and find out what these little buggers eat!

    red-breasted pygmy parrot
    Male Red-breasted Pygmy Parrot

    Okay, so these guys are known as the world's smallest parrot and they have a whopping 26 subspecies found in only one area of the entire planet! But before today a lot of you probably did not know much about this amazing little bird. But if we had it as a common pet everyone would know it's name, so why don't we have them as pets? One reason is because of their super-specialized and very odd diet. These birds feast on lichens as well as taking insects, fungus, larvae, fruit and small seeds. Let me quote Forshaw about how the Buff-faced Pygmy goes about eating lichens. Video of a bird feeding.
    Near Port Moresby I watched a pair feeding in a tall tree standing in secondary growth. When first noticed they were climbing about on the face of the trunk, frequently stopping to feed on lichen. The feet were spread far apart and were at a 45* angle to the body. The projecting tail-shafts were in contact with the trunk only at their tips and there was no pressure on the tail feathers to spread them against the surface of the trunk; in other words, when feeding the parrots were using their stiffened tail feathers for support, although this was not at all obvious at first glance. While nibbling at the lichen they paused every two or three seconds to lean back from the trunk and, turning their heads right around, surveyed behind them as if aware of exposure to predators. They moved in all directions over the trunk and branches, even descending head first and upside-down on the undersides of lateral branches. Head movements were very rapid, but the birds’ progress over the branches was without the jerky motions so characteristic of treecreepers, nuthatches and sittellas. 
    The other reason why we don't see them in captivity is because of their very different nesting habits from other parrots. Like most of our birds in captivity they are cavity nesters but the surprise comes in when you find out who it is they nest with; Termites! I find this the most fascinating and, in the long term, perhaps the most dangerous way for a species to survive. This kind of symbiotic reliance the parrot and termite have is known as Coevolution  and the birds are found living in only active termite nests year round.
    When you think about coevolution think about hummingbirds like the Swordbill. This bird's bill is as long as its body due to it's reliance on certain passion flower species. It's handy when you are the only bird in town that can eat from a big flower, but if the flower disappears too quickly that bill costs a lot of energy to maintain if you don't use it. So you either adapt or go extinct, fortunately for the Swordbill it still can eat from other flowers and has even been seen at nectar feeders. This is the same idea with the Pygmy parrots, but they do not look as flexible evolutionay-wise as the hummingbird because they seem to rely solely on the termites for a nest. Could this be for hygienic protection? Do the termites benefit at all? If they don't then it is not coevolution. No one seems to know the answers yet. But if the termites leave the forest so do the pygmies.
    
    Special Evolved Features
    Created by the author
    (c)
    So pygmies show many peculiarities that few people know about. But their amazing adaptability to their environment is enough to get anyones head to spin, a parrot? Are you sure that's what it is? Yup. And that makes it even more amazing. Species like this can only stay around to help educate people about the amazing feats of nature if they are preserved in the wild for future generations. As educated parrot owners the preservation of wild birds puts itself on our shoulders. We need to keep learning and participating in the animal community to keep it alive. What is "it"? The birds, amazing feats of nature, or the curious animal community? I leave that to you to decide.

    Copyright 2011
    The Sequential Psittacine Blog


    Sources:
    Forshaw's Parrots of the World 1978 ed.
    Parrots of the World 2010 ed.
    Wikipedia
    World Parrot Trust
    Internet Bird Collection
    thefeaturedcreature.com
    animalpicturearchive.com

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